What is graphene? An incredible magical material

        In recent years, much attention has been paid to the supermaterial graphene. But what is graphene? Well, imagine a substance that is 200 times stronger than steel, but 1000 times lighter than paper.
        In 2004, two scientists from the University of Manchester, Andrei Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, “played” with graphite. Yes, the same thing you find on the tip of a pencil. They were curious about the material and wanted to know if it could be removed in one layer. So they found an unusual tool: duct tape.
        “You lay [the tape] over graphite or mica and then peel off the top layer,” Heim explained to the BBC. Graphite flakes fly off the tape. Then fold the tape in half and glue it to the top sheet, then separate them again. Then you repeat this process 10 or 20 times.
        “Each time the flakes break down into thinner and thinner flakes. In the end, very thin flakes remain on the belt. You dissolve the tape and everything dissolves.”
        Surprisingly, the tape method worked wonders. This interesting experiment led to the discovery of single-layer graphene flakes.
       In 2010, Heim and Novoselov received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of graphene, a material composed of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, similar to chicken wire.
        One of the main reasons graphene is so amazing is its structure. A single layer of pristine graphene appears as a layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure. This atomic-scale honeycomb structure gives graphene its impressive strength.
        Graphene is also an electrical superstar. At room temperature, it conducts electricity better than any other material.
        Remember those carbon atoms we discussed? Well, they each have an extra electron called a pi electron. This electron moves freely, allowing it to conduct conduction through multiple layers of graphene with little resistance.
       Recent research into graphene at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has discovered something almost magical: when you slightly (just 1.1 degrees) rotate two layers of graphene out of alignment, the graphene becomes a superconductor.
       This means it can conduct electricity without resistance or heat, opening up exciting possibilities for future superconductivity at room temperature.
        One of the most anticipated applications of graphene is in batteries. Thanks to its superior conductivity, we can produce graphene batteries that charge faster and last longer than modern lithium-ion batteries.
       Some large companies such as Samsung and Huawei have already taken this path, aiming to introduce these advances into our everyday gadgets.
        “By 2024, we expect a range of graphene products to be on the market,” said Andrea Ferrari, director of the Cambridge Graphene Center and researcher at the Graphene Flagship, an initiative run by European Graphene. The company is investing 1 billion euros in joint projects. projects. The alliance accelerates the development of graphene technology.
        Flagship’s research partners are already creating graphene batteries that provide 20% more capacity and 15% more energy than today’s best high-energy batteries. Other teams have created graphene-based solar cells that are 20 percent more efficient at converting sunlight into electricity.
        While there are some early products that have harnessed the potential of graphene, such as Head sports equipment, the best is yet to come. As Ferrari noted: “We talk about graphene, but in reality we are talking about a large number of options being studied. Things are moving in the right direction.”
       This article has been updated using artificial intelligence technology, fact-checked, and edited by HowStuffWorks editors.
        Sports equipment manufacturer Head has used this amazing material. Their Graphene XT tennis racket claims to be 20% lighter at the same weight. This is truly revolutionary technology!
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Post time: Nov-21-2023